(8th – 15th centuries)
With the introduction of paper, a new and easier writing system, and the establishment of The House of Wisdom, information was finally democratized. Established in the Abbasid-era in Baghdad, Iraq. The House of Wisdom was a library, a translation institute and an academy, The period was influenced by the translated works from Indian and Persian. Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Latin and Ladino, contributing to the development of the modern European philosophy.
Islamic astronomy flourished and in turn influenced the Byzantine, European, Chinese and the Malian astronomy. A significant number of starts in the sky today are still referred to by their Arabic names (Aldebaran, Altair) besides other astronomical terms (alidade, azimuth and almucantar). A large corpus of literature from Islamic astronomy remains today (around 10,000 manuscript volumes), much of which has not even been cataloged yet!
- Ibn Rushd
- Ibn Sina
- Hunayn ibn Ishaq
- Ibn Al-Haytham (Alhazen) – “world’s first true scientist”.
- Ibn Al-Nafis
- Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna’s Canon – The Canon of Medicine
- Al-Shukuk ala Batlamyus – Doubts on Ptolemy
- Al-Khawarizmi – Zij al-Sindh